Friday, December 6

Today's Troll Lesson is How The Female Reproduction System Works and what breasts look like!

Menstrual cycle is the cycle of changes that occurs in the uterus and ovary for the purpose of sexual reproduction. It is essential for the production of eggs and for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. The#menstrualcycle occurs only in fertile #female#humans and other female primates. In humans, the length of a menstrual cycle varies greatly among women (ranging from 25 to 35 days), with 28 days designated as the average length. Each cycle can be divided into three phases based on events in the ovary#ovarian cycle or in the #uterus #uterine cycle). The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle is divided into menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase. Both cycles are controlled by the endocrine system and the normal hormonal changes that occur can be interfered with using hormonal contraception to prevent reproduction. After being released from the ovary, the egg is swept into the fallopian tube by the fimbria, which is a fringe of tissue at the end of each fallopian tube. After about a day, an unfertilized egg will disintegrate or dissolve in the fallopian tubeFertilization by a spermatozoon #sperm #semen #jizz#cum , when it occurs, usually takes place in the ampulla, the widest section of the fallopian tubes. A fertilized egg immediately begins the process of embryogenesis, or development. The developing #baby#embryo takes about three days to reach the uterus and another three days to implant into the endometrium. It has usually reached the blastocyst stage at the time of implantation. In some women, ovulation features a characteristic pain called mittelschmerz (German term meaning middle pain). The sudden change in hormones at the time of ovulation sometimes also causes light mid-cycle blood flow By convention, menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of menstrual bleeding. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, discharges of blood (menses) slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg, in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. The hormone drop causes the uterus to shed its lining and egg in a process termed menstruation. In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as other systems (which lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example). A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12-13. The end of a woman's reproductive phase is called the menopause, which commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55. The average age of menarche in humans is 12–13 years, but is normal anywhere between ages 8 and 16. The average age of menarche is about 12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK and 13.06 ± 0.10 years in Iceland. Factors such as heredity, diet and overall health can accelerate or delay menarche. The cessation of menstrual cycles at the end of a woman's reproductive period is termed menopause. The average age of menopause in women is 52 years, with anywhere between 45 and 55 being common. Menopause before age 45 is considered premature in industrialised countries. Like the age of menarche, the age of menopause is largely a result of cultural and biological factors; however, illnesses, certain surgeries, or medical treatments may cause menopause to occur earlier than it might have otherwise. The length of a woman's menstrual cycle will typically vary, with some shorter cycles and some longer cycles. A woman who experiences variations of less than eight days between her longest cycles and shortest cycles is considered to have regular menstrual cycles. It is unusual for a woman to experience cycle length variations of less than four days. Length variation between eight and 20 days is considered as moderately irregular cycles. Variation of 21 days or more between a woman's shortest and longest cycle lengths is considered very irregular. The menstrual cycle can be described by the ovarian or uterine cycle. The ovarian cycle describes changes that occur in the follicles of the ovary whereas the uterine cycle describes changes in the endometrial lining of the uterus. Both cycles can be divided into three phases. The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle consists of menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase. Menstruation is the periodic discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (the endometrium) from the uterus and vagina. It starts at menarche at or before sexual maturity (maturation), in females of certain mammalian species, and ceases at or near menopause (commonly considered the end of a female's reproductive life). The periodicity of menstruation gives rise to commonly used euphemisms like "period" and "monthly".[1][2] Women typically stop menstruating if they conceive or if they are breastfeeding. When menstruation stops for longer than about 90 days in the absence of pregnancy or breastfeeding, a medical evaluation should occur, as a number of health problems can result in absent menstruation. Menstruation lasts from puberty until menopause among non-pregnant women. 

See for larger & better quality version of this image! Space is the boundless threedimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless fourdimensional #continuum known as #spacetime . In #mathematics , "spaces" are examined with different numbers of #dimensions and with different underlying structures. The concept of#space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However,#disagreement continues between #philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework. Debates concerning the nature, essence and the mode of existence of space date back to antiquity; namely, to treatises like the Timaeus of Plato, or Socrates in his reflections on what the Greeks called khora (i.e. "space"), or in the Physics of Aristotle (Book IV, Delta) in the definition of topos (i.e. place), or even in the later "geometrical conception of place" as "space qua extension" in the Discourse on Place (Qawl fi alMakan) of the thcentury Arab polymath Alhazen. Many of these classical philosophical questions were discussed in the Renaissance and then reformulated in the th century, particularly during the early development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton's view, space was absolute—in the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were any #matter in the space. Other natural philosophers, notably Gottfried Leibniz, thought instead that space was in fact a collection of relations between objects, given by their distance and direction from one another. In the th century, the philosopher and theologian George Berkeley attempted to refute the "visibility of spatial depth" in his Essay Towards a New #Theory of Vision. Later, the metaphysician Immanuel Kant said neither space nor time can be empirically perceived, they are elements of a systematic framework that humans use to structure all experiences. Kant referred to "space" in his Critique of Pure Reason as being: a subjective "pure a priori form of intuition", hence it is an unavoidable contribution of our human faculties. In the seventeenth#century , the philosophy of space and time emerged as a central issue in epistemology and metaphysics. At its heart, Gottfried Leibniz, the German philosophermathematician, and Isaac Newton, the English physicistmathematician, set out two opposing theories of what space is. Rather than being an entity that independently exists over and above other matter, Leibniz held that space is no more than the collection of spatial relations between objects in the world: "space is that which results from places taken together". Unoccupied regions are those that could have objects in them, and thus spatial relations with other places. For Leibniz, then, space was an idealised abstraction from the relations between individual entities or their possible locations and therefore could not be continuous but must be discrete. Space could be thought of in a similar way to the relations between family members. Although people in the family are related to one another, the relations do not exist independently of the people. Leibniz argued that space could not exist independently of objects in the world because that implies a difference between two universes exactly alike except for the location of the material world in each universe. But since there would be no observational way of telling these universes apart then, according to the identity of indiscernibles, there would be no real difference between them. According to the principle of sufficient reason, any theory of space that implied that there could be these two possible #universes , must therefore be wrong.#IsaacNewton Isaac Newton took space to be more than relations between material objects and based his position on observation and experimentation. For a relationist there can be no real difference between inertial motion, in which the object travels with#constantvelocity , and noninertial #motion , in which the #velocity changes with time, since all spatial measurements are relative to other objects and their motions. But Newton argued that since noninertial motion generates #forces , it must be absolute. He used the example of water in a spinning bucket to demonstrate his argument. Water in a bucket is hung from a rope and set to spin, starts with a flat surface. After a while, as the bucket continues to spin, the surface of the water becomes concave. If the bucket's#spinning is stopped then the surface of the water remains concave as it continues to spin. The concave surface is therefore apparently not the result of relative motion between the bucket and the water. Instead, Newton argued, it must be a result of noninertial motion relative to space itself. For several centuries the bucket argument was decisive in showing that space must exist independently of matter. In the th and th centuries mathematicians began to examine nonEuclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat. According to#AlbertEinstein 's #theory of #generalrelativity , space around gravitational fields deviates from Euclidean space. #Experimental tests of general #relativity have confirmed that nonEuclidean space provides a better model for the shape of space. In , Albert Einstein published a paper on a special theory of relativity, in which he proposed that space and time be combined into a single construct known as spacetime.

#JensenAckles was born in #Dallas , #Texas , to Roger Alan Ackles and Donna Joan Ackles (née Shaffer). After #modeling as a young child, he began to concentrate on an #acting career in upon his #graduation from Lloyd V. Berkner #HighSchool in Richardson, Texas. In , he received a role on the NBC soap opera Days of Our Lives () as Eric Brady, for which he #won a #SoapOpera Digest #award for Best Male Newcomer. After leaving #DaysofOurLives () in , Ackles went to #Vancouver , joining the cast of the James Cameron television series Dark Angel (). His first appearance on the show was in as Max' (played by Jessica Alba) disturbed brother Ben/X. After Ben" died, Ackles returned to the series in the second season as Ben's clone, Alec/X, who eventually teamed up with Max and stayed until the show's demise in . In , he made several guest appearances as C.J. on the hit WB Network show Dawson's Creek (). In , Ackles returned to Vancouver and became a regular on the popular WB Network series Smallville (), which revolves around the life of the teen aged #ClarkKent #Superman . His character, Jason Teague, was an assistant coach for the high school football team and a love interest of Clark Kent's exgirlfriend, Lana Lang, played by Kristin Kreuk. Ackles returned to #television in in the new WB #horror series Supernatural () in the role of Dean Winchester, who teams with his brother Sam (Jared Padalecki) to roadtrip across the country investigating the #paranormal . Deep Husky Voice Ginger Beard Freckles Often plays men with intense emotional and psychological issues Frequently plays characters with an overwhelming need for parental approval Trivia () Graduated from L. V. Berkner High School, Richardson, Texas in . Has one brother, Joshua, approximately three years older, and one sister, Mackenzie, approximately seven years younger. Was a child model at age , then quit, and started again at age . Played baseball and lacrosse in high school. Fan of the Dallas Cowboys. Planned to study sports medicine at Texas Tech University and become a physical therapist, before he decided to move to LA to give acting a try. Enjoys horseback riding. graduate of Apollo Junior High School in Richardson, TX. graduate of Dartmouth #Elementary School in Richardson, Texas. Was runner up to Tom Welling for the role of #ClarkKent on #Smallville (). Was brought onto the show in season as Lana's boyfriend. Also sings and plays guitar. He is the son of actor Alan Ackles and Donna Joan Shaffer. Jensen's parents named him Jensen because they considered other names but found them too common. Ackles, Jensen's last name, is pronounced like 'Cackles' without a 'C.' Good friends with Christian Kane. His career has an ongoing theme of dealing with demonic forces. His character's mother, "Marlena" on Days of Our Lives (), was possessed by the Devil. In the movie Devour (), he was the son of "Satan". On his television series, Supernatural (), his character battles the forces of hell. His parents were going to name him Justin but his parents thought it was too common. He is a keen photographer and is always taking photos on the set of Supernatural (). Was offered a role as Eliza Dushku's love interest on Tru Calling () but chose to take a role on Smallville () instead. Eric #Christian Olsen was eventually given the role and the character's name was changed to Jensen. His first name is actually a surname and is the most common surname in #Denmark . Best friends with his Supernatural () costar, Jared Padalecki. Jared Padalecki even calls Jensen's father Papa Ackles. Is expecting his first child with wife Danneel Ackles (January ). On the film set of Cheaper by the Dozen (), Jared Padalecki met Tom Welling, who played Clark Kent on Smallville (). Before the start of Supernatural (), Jensen also played on Smallville. Both shows filmed in B.C. Vancouver, in the CW lot, and they are all now reallife friends. Tom and Jared, are both pranksters. Had his first daughter with wife Danneel Harris Ackles, named Justice Jay "JJ" Ackles, born on May , . Ranked # on Empire Online list of the " Sexiest Movie Stars" in . Filming season of Supernatural () in Vancouver, British Columbia. August Filming the th season of Supernatural () in Vancouver, British Columbia. November Filming the rd season of Supernatural () in Vancouver. 

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